Edema on the head of a newborn
Nature has ensured that the risk ofThe child at the time of his birth was minimized. Despite this, there are reasons that can lead to various injuries in childbirth. One of the most common injuries is a hematoma on the head of a newborn. Because of what it arises and is it dangerous for the child? How to treat it?
What is hematoma and what are its causes
Hematoma is a bruise in the tissues, formed as a result of rupture of blood vessels. Education can appear on any part of the body, but more often on the head.
There are 2 main reasons for the formation of hematomas in newborns:
- squeezing the child's body parts while passing through the mother's birth canal;
- a sharp drop in pressure in the body of the baby at the time of transition from the internal environment to the external.
The risk of a hematoma increases if:
- premature baby;
- the size of the fetal head and the lumen of the mother's birth canal do not coincide with each other;
- During the delivery a vacuum extraction was performed;
- the fruit is too large;
- the baby was born by cesarean section.
Types of hematomas in newborns
- Kefalogematoma - the accumulation of blood between the skull and the periosteum. It occurs in 2% of newborns.
- Intracerebral hematoma - the penetration of blood into the brain.
- Epidural - the rupture of a blood vessel between the cranial bone and the dura mater. The most severe and dangerous type of hemorrhage.
- Subdural hematoma - the ingress of blood under a solid medulla.
Within 10-14 days, the bruise must passindependently, without medical interventions. It should be borne in mind that the larger the size of the hematoma, the longer it will dissolve. If the accumulation of blood gradually decreases in size, the baby does not experience any discomfort, this is considered the most favorable outcome of the injury.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound scan, X-ray, CT and MRI of the child's head.
To the kid with a cephalohematoma the doctor in most cases appoints an ultrasound to confirm the diagnosis and avoid complications
There are times when there is no improvement,doctors resort to aspiration of the hematoma. The procedure involves the removal of blood clots with the help of special needles: one needle is needed for pumping blood, the second - to prevent the appearance of negative pressure in the released cavity.
Puncture produces an excellent effect, besidesquite simple. On the same day, the baby feels better, revitalized. If the education was quite extensive, then after the puncture the doctor will prescribe the medicines. Poor clotting of the blood in a baby requires the introduction of hemostatic drugs (calcium gluconate, vitamin K).
It is important to feed the newborn baby with breast milk. So the child gets all the necessary substances for the body, including immunoglobulins, which help reduce the risk of complications in the place of injury.
Doctors do not consider this injury dangerous, but insist on her observation for two weeks. Hematomas in newborns on the head may havedifferent consequences. If you do not observe the condition of the baby's head and do not start treatment on time, the hemorrhage may become foul. It is also important to get rid of accumulations of blood, while they still have an elastic liquid consistency. Otherwise, the formation will harden, and the baby's head will deform.
Unwanted consequences of birth traumahead may become delayed development, very rarely - cerebral palsy. Noticing some disturbing symptoms, which are described below, it is necessary to immediately show the child to a pediatrician and a children's neurologist.
> You should pay attention if the newborn:
- too exciting, restless;
- does not sleep well at night;
- lazily takes a breast, is choked, after the meal the large volume of milk regurgitates;
- experiencing intestinal colic;
- throws back his head;
- tilts or turns the head in one direction;
- the baby has a lacrimation of the eye (only on one side);
- the child has a hypotonic muscle.
A kid with a head hematoma should be under constant supervision of a local doctor and caring parents. And in most cases, the cephalogram will pass without leaving a trace of itself
What is the difference between a hematoma from a generic tumor
The generic tumor is a soft edematissues. At first glance, it is similar to a hematoma, both birth trauma quite often occurs after childbirth. But the tumor has differences: it captures simultaneously several adjacent bones of the skull and does not move in different directions, if you click on it. The hematoma, in turn, is formed in the area of only one bone that has been injured (temporal, parietal, occipital or frontal). When pressing on the hematoma, it seems to diverge in waves, changing shape.
Remember that in most cases, hematomaNewborns are not dangerous, and you should not worry about it. The main thing that is required from the mother is to take care of the baby, and in time to show the child to the doctor if she noticed any disturbing changes.