Edema of the optic disc is not known cause of the forum
Causes of edema of the nipple of the optic nerve. Causes of hydrocephalus
Anatomically dura mater extends in the form of a box around the visualnerve and then connects with the sclera of the eye. When the pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid system rises, it also rises inside the optic nerve case. The artery and retina vein enter this case at a level of several millimeters behind the eye and then go along with the optic nerve fibers into the eye itself.
Consequently. (1) high cerebrospinal fluid pressurepushes the fluid first into the optic nerve case, and then along the spaces between the optic nerve fibers into the eyeball; (2) high pressure reduces the outflow of fluid through the optic nerves, causing accumulation of fluid in the area of the optic disc in the center of the retina; (3) the pressure in the case also prevents the flow of blood in the vein of the retina, increasing the pressure in the capillaries of the entire eye, which leads to an even greater edema of the retina.
Tissue of the optic disk much more extensible than in other partsretina, so the disc swells more than the rest of the retina, and swells into the cavity of the eye. The edema of the disc (it is also called edema of the nipple of the optic nerve) can be seen with the help of an ophthalmoscope. Neurologists can judge the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid by the degree of swelling of the edematous visual disk inside the eyeball.
Hydrocephalus - excess water in the arch of the skull. This condition is often divided into open hydrocephalus and closed (occlusive) hydrocephalus. With open hydrocephalus, fluid flows easily from the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space, whereas with closed hydrocephalus, outflow of fluid from one or more ventricles is blocked.
Usually closed type hydrocephalus connected with the blockade of thethe result of its atresia (closure) before birth in many infants or the overlapping of the brain tumor at any age. As the fluid forms with vascular plexuses in the two lateral and third ventricles, the volumes of these three ventricles increase significantly. At the same time the brain is squeezed and turns into a thin layer of brain tissue, pressed against the skull. In neonates, increased pressure also causes an increase in the size of the head, since the bones of the skull have not yet joined.
Open type of hydrocephalus usually associated with blockade of fluid in the subarachnoidspace around the base of the brain or blockade of the villi of the arachnoid shell, where normally the fluid is absorbed into the venous sinuses. Consequently, the fluid accumulates both outside the brain and inside the ventricles (to a lesser extent). This at any age leads to damage to the brain, and in an infant, when the skull is still soft and can stretch, fluid accumulation also causes excessive swelling of the head.
For treatment of many types of hydrocephalus surgical shunting using a silicone tube connecting one of the cerebral ventricles with the abdominal cavity where excess fluid can be absorbed into the blood.