Cerebral edema causes

Edema can occur in all organs and systemsour body for various reasons. In our today's material, we will consider one of the most life-threatening conditions - cerebral edema.

Cerebral edema - causes

The onset of cerebral edemaCharacterizes increased intracranial pressure. Among the causes of its occurrence, the most common is craniocerebral trauma. But edema can also occur due to diseases of the central nervous system, allergic reactions, as well as infectious diseases. The most common causes of cerebral edema:

  • mechanical trauma of the brain (concussion, damage to the tissues of the cerebral cortex);
  • viral, bacterial infections (meningitis, encephalitis, toxoplasmosis);
  • malignant or benign brain tumor;
  • long-term diseases of the respiratory system or cardiovascular system;
  • a sharp drop in altitude (mountain sickness);
  • intracranial hemorrhage (stroke).

Against the background of any damage to the cortex of the headthe brain has a difficult circulation. This causes a poor supply of oxygen to the brain tissue. So the swelling develops. It should be noted that such a reaction of the brain sometimes carries a very rapid character, and sometimes it develops slowly without special manifestations at the first stages.

Cerebral edema - consequences

In cases of minor cerebral edema,caused by a mountain sickness or a slight concussion of the brain, or when there is cerebral edema after the operation with the opening of the cranium, there is no need for special treatment. This state goes by itself in a few days or even hours, it does not carry any serious violations of the CNS in the future. Although, diagnosis in such cases is still necessary in order not to miss other menacing symptoms. The consequences of more serious diseases that accompany cerebral edema may have a different character:

  • disorders of the musculoskeletal system;
  • complete or partial loss of hearing, vision, speech;
  • amnesia;
  • death.

It is important to remember that timelyqualified medical care minimizes all effects of cerebral edema. Even the most difficult states, in most cases, are reversible.

Cerebral edema in stroke

Hemorrhage in the brain blocks the intakeoxygen in some parts of the most central organ of the central nervous system. Therefore, with cerebral stroke, cerebral edema develops rapidly and often leads to irreversible consequences. The earlier it is possible to restore blood circulation and to remove the edema, the more chances to rehabilitate the activity of the central nervous system. Together with the disruption of the brain function, the worsening of the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is increasing. Six hours after the primary edema associated with circulatory disorders, secondary (vasogenic) edema occurs. It is characterized by a slowing of blood circulation in small vessels of the brain and threatens the complete death of brain cells. In the case of cerebral edema with stroke, ozone therapy is the most effective - active supply of brain cells with ozone.

Swelling of the brain - symptoms

Depending on the severity of the disease,provoking edema, the symptoms can be pronounced or hidden. Sometimes the only symptom of cerebral edema is the congestion of the optic discs. It can be determined during the examination of the fundus. Pronounced symptoms of cerebral edema:

  • sudden bursting headache, which appears undulating;
  • vomiting;
  • an increase in the pulse rate to 120-150 beats per minute at rest;
  • rapid breathing;
  • impairment or loss of consciousness;
  • speech impairment;
  • deterioration of vision;
  • loss of balance;
  • numbness of the neck muscles;
  • convulsions;
  • in severe cases - stop breathing.

Cerebral edema - treatment

Diagnosis and identification of causes of cerebral edema givethe opportunity to conduct correct and timely treatment. Edema can occur both locally, in one hemisphere, and throughout the brain. To determine the degree, size of the edema and disturbances of the central nervous system, an MRI of the brain is performed, as well as a detailed analysis of blood and urine to identify the causes of the pathological condition. Further, depending from the severity of the disease, carry out a set of measures to eliminate edema and treat the disease itself, which caused it:

  1. Connection to the device for artificial oxygen supply.
  2. Surgical intervention, which helps to immediately resume blood flow, eliminating the oxygen starvation of the brain area.
  3. Intravenous drug therapy aimed at normalizing the work of the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, the rarefaction of blood, and, if necessary, the elimination of infection.
  4. Artificial decrease in body temperature.