What causes swelling of the legs
What causes pulmonary edema?
Pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome thatoccurs as a result of sweating the liquid component of the blood, accompanied by a violation of gas metabolism, acidosis and tissue hypoxia. What causes pulmonary edema and can it be prevented?
- Cardiology. Edema can be a complication of the heartinsufficiency, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, aortitis, acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis. Often, edema develops as a result of heart disease, aortic aneurysm, mitral stenosis.
- Nephrology. Pulmonary edema can develop on a background of nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, renal failure.
- Gastroenterology. Pulmonary edema can be a consequence of acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, intestinal obstruction.
- Neurology. Lung edema can occur due to encephalitis, meningitis, surgery on the cerebral cortex.
In some cases, pulmonary edema can be a complication of infectious diseases taking place with severe intoxication - influenza, whooping cough, tetanus, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis, etc.
Pulmonary edema does not always develop rapidly. Sometimes it is preceded by such symptoms:
- dry cough;
- chest tightness.
Pulmonary edema is accompanied by progressive inhibition, confusion, further falls arterial pressure, breathing becomes intermittent, and pulse - filiform.
In the absence of timely qualified help, the patient dies of suffocation.
In addition to external physical data in the diagnosis of pulmonary edema, laboratory research plays an important role:
- Analysis of blood gases - a decrease in PaO2 and an increase in PaCO2. CVP in case of edema rises to 12 cm.
- Biochemical blood test - is done to determine the causes that led to edema.
- ECG - pulmonary edema is accompanied by the presence of arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy.
- X-ray - shows the presence of enlarged roots of the lungs and cardiac boundaries.
First aid is provided to the patient in the form of alleviation of his condition:
- hot foot baths;
- the attachment of harnesses to the limbs;
- body position in sitting position;
- supply of humidified oxygen.
In order to extinguish the activity of the center of respiration duringedema shows the administration of morphine, and for the purification of lungs - furosemide. In the treatment of pulmonary edema, ganglion blockers, which promote the reduction of pressure in a small circle of blood circulation, have proved to be well established.
Depending on the condition of the patient, there may behypotensive, antibacterial, hormonal, antiarrhythmic, thrombolytic drugs, cardiac glycosides, infusions of colloidal and protein solutions are prescribed.
After removal of the first attack, it is necessary to determine precisely the causes leading to pulmonary edema and to treat the underlying disease.