What are the natural disproperties with painless swelling of the legs?
Disturbance of metabolism (metabolism)appear at almost all levels of the biological systems of the body - on the cellular, molecular and other levels. The most serious is a metabolic disorder at the cellular level, since it significantly changes the mechanisms of self-regulation and has a hereditary cause.
Metabolism is a complex of chemical reactions,completely corresponding to its name, because the metabolism in Greek means "transformation". Constantly acting metabolism, in fact, supports life in the human body, allowing it to develop and reproduce, adequately respond to the impact of the environment and retain all its functions.
Fats, carbohydrates, proteins and other elements take part in the metabolism, each of which plays its own role in the metabolism.
- Irreplaceable "building material" is proteins,which became famous thanks to the historical phrases of Engels about life as a form of the existence of protein bodies. The utterance of one of the fathers of Marxism corresponds to reality, where there are protein elements, there is life. Proteins are part of the structure of blood plasma, hemoglobin, hormones, cytoplasm, immune cells, and proteins are responsible for water-salt balance and fermentation processes.
- Carbohydrates are considered a source of energy resources of the body, among the most important - glycogen and glucose. Also carbohydrates are involved in the synthesis of amino acids, lipids.
- Fats accumulate energy reserves, but giveenergy only in combination with carbohydrates. Also, fats are needed for the production of hormones, the assimilation of certain vitamins, they participate in the construction of the cell membrane, ensure the preservation of nutrients.
Metabolic disorders are a change in onefrom the stages of metabolism - in catabolism or anabolism. Catabolism or dissimilation is the process of oxidation or differentiation of complex elements to the state of simple organic molecules that can participate in the process of anabolism (assimilation) - synthesizing, which is characterized by energy costs. The metabolic process takes place throughout life according to the following stages:
- Nutrients arrive in the human body.
- Nutrients are absorbed from the digestive system, fermented and cleaved, penetrating the blood and lymphatic system.
- Tissue stage - transport, redistribution, energy release and assimilation of substances.
- Derivation of metabolic products that the body has not learned. Isolation occurs through the lungs, with sweat, urine and feces.
Metabolic disorders in children
Infringement of a metabolism at children and infringementmetabolism in adults and differ at times drastically. The child's organism develops intensively, so it requires much more energy resources and plastic elements, which are produced by the food that enters the body. Especially high is the metabolic rate in children under one year, when the basic systemic functions of the child are formed. Further, the child needs significant energy resources for assimilation and synthesis processes that promote development and growth. Since the central nervous system, neurohumoral mechanisms and endocrine glands are not stabilized, the regulation of metabolic processes in the child is imperfect. Therefore, metabolic disorders in children are quite common, especially in our time, when there is no culture of rational nutrition and compliance with the norms of motor activity. The consequence of a metabolic disorder in a child can be such diseases:
- Anemia, which develops against a background of deficiencyprotein components and iron. That is why while the child's body grows, it is very important to monitor the baby's diet and diet. Even if parents are fanatically devoted to the idea of vegetarianism, for a child such a diet is the direct way to anemia.
- Rickets, which develops due to phosphorus deficiencyand calcium or pathological features of the body that interfere with the absorption of calcium. Both calcium and phosphorus play a crucial role in the formation of the bone and cartilage system, especially in the first months of the baby's life.
- Theta or spasmophilia that developsdue to a failure in the phosphorus-calcium metabolism and an excess of calcium, against the background of previously diagnosed rickets. Spasmophilia is manifested by convulsive syndrome, spasms.
- Amyloidosis is a pathological disease thatis provoked by a violation of the physiological level of metabolism. The disease manifests itself in the form of damage to the muscles of the kidneys or the heart, the cause is the deposition of structurally altered proteins in the muscle tissues (amyloids).
- Hyperglycemia, which is a consequence of latent diabetes mellitus.
- Hypoglycaemia (insulin shock) is a decreased level of glucose (sugar) in the blood due to stress or due to diabetes maternal.
Metabolic disorders at any stage, such asin adults, and in children, provokes pathological changes in the functioning of the body's systems and is a serious threat to the state of health.
Causes of metabolic disorders
The causes of metabolic disorders, as a rule,belong to the hereditary factor, although they have not yet been fully studied. The main role of regulation of intracellular metabolism is performed by genetically transmitted information. If genes start mutating, especially those that code for the synthesis of enzymes, metabolic defects develop. Also affect gene mutations of transport and structural proteins mutations, but to a lesser extent.
Also, the causes of metabolic disorders can be associated with pathological changes in the function of the thyroid gland, in the pituitary and adrenal glands.
One of the reasons can be a wrong diethuman nutrition, as well as non-compliance with the norms of a healthy lifestyle. Both overeating, starvation, and fanatical devotion to newfangled diets, untested time and nutritionists, can provoke a failure in metabolism.
The first signs of metabolic disorders
Metabolic symptoms show symptomsvarious, among which the most characteristic is overweight, obesity. Further in the list of signs there is swelling and a change in the structure of the skin, hair, and nails. These are the most "visible" symptoms that should alert a person and encourage him to undergo examination and treatment.
Also in clinical practice, diseases that inevitably are accompanied by signs of a metabolic disorder are described in detail.
- Gout is a violation of the regulation of uric acid metabolism, in which the salts, provoking the inflammatory process, accumulate in the kidneys and cartilage tissues.
- Hypercholesterolemia - disorders of dissimilation,catabolism of lipoproteins, when the blood levels of cholesterol significantly increase, and cholesterol accumulates in the tissues. This imbalance is one of the reasons, rapidly developing in the whole world of cardiovascular diseases.
- Phenylketonuria - metabolic disordershereditary etiology, when the body lacks a specific enzyme - phenylalanine hydroxylase, which leads to mental disorders (delayed development).
- Girke's disease is an overabundance of glycogen in organs and tissues, which leads to hepatomegaly (liver enlargement), developmental lag in growth, hypoglycemia.
- Alkaponuria - metabolic disorderdue to gene mutation, when the gene responsible for the synthesis of oxidase does not fulfill its function. This is a typical male disease that affects the cartilaginous tissue (spine, joints).
- Albinism is the absence of the necessary pigment - melanin. The disease is caused by the inability to synthesize tyrosine and phenylalanine and has a hereditary etiology.
In addition to these diseases, signs of metabolic disorders are characteristic of many other pathologies, usually developing genetic deformation.
Symptoms of metabolic disorders
Symptoms of metabolic disorders can bevarious. They depend on what level of metabolism changes - molecular, cellular, metabolism in tissues and organs or a holistic level. Any violation of the chemical exchange process can provoke the disease. The causes of metabolic disorders lie in adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, heredity dysfunction, and metabolic disorders can cause malnutrition, most often, starvation. Changes in metabolic processes appear gradually, so the primary symptoms are most often not visible. The most manifested signs concern the violation of a holistic level, which includes the main types of assimilation and dissimilation of important components:
- Synthesis of proteins (proteins).
- Dissimilation (breakdown) of proteins.
- Synthesis of fats.
- Dissimilation of fats.
- Synthesis of carbohydrates.
- Dissimilation of carbohydrates.
How to recognize the first signs of a metabolic disorder?
Metabolic disorders symptoms are basic:
- A noticeable change in body weight - both in the smaller and larger, while maintaining the usual diet.
- Lack of appetite or vice versa - increased appetite.
- Appearance of hyper or hypopigmentation.
- Dental problems, mainly, the destruction of tooth enamel.
- Disruption of the digestive system-diarrhea alternates with constipation.
- Changing the structure of nails and hair - dryness, stratification, fragility (hair - early gray hair, nails - white spots).
- Dermatological problems - acne, skin rashes, less often - furunculosis.
- Pale skin, puffiness of the face and puffiness of the extremities (pastoznost).
Diseases caused by a metabolic disorder can be hereditary or acquired.
Metabolic disorders, symptoms of hereditary diseases:
Hypercholesterolemia is a violation of the disintegration of lipoproteins, as a result of which atherosclerosis develops. Signs and Diseases:
- numbness of extremities (they often freeze);
- cyanosis (cyanosis) of the skin;
- cardiological pathologies;
- violation of concentration of attention, memory;
- nephropathology, diabetes.
Disease Hirke - an innate pathology associated with a violation of the enzymatic function of the liver, which manifests such symptoms:
- hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver);
- low-grade fever;
- growth retardation;
- deviation from the norms of physical development;
Gout - a change in the exchange of uric acid, the deposition of salts in the cartilage tissues, in the kidneys, accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the big toes;
- inflammation of the joints of the feet;
- edema and redness of the joints of the feet;
- increased body temperature;
- the formation of tofusov (subcutaneous nodules) in the elbows, in the auricles and in the calcaneal tendon.
Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder of metabolismsubstances, the symptoms of which appear before the age of one year and concern the central nervous system and mental development. As a result of changes in amino acid metabolism, the following symptoms appear:
- lethargy, apathy, unusual for babies;
- lethargy is sharply replaced by irritability;
- lag in physical and mental development (weak degree of oligophrenia or idiocy);
- lag in the anatomical development - a small size of the skull, later teething, underdevelopment of the musculoskeletal system;
- typical symptoms - a rocking gait, small steps, in sitting position - "tailor's posture" due to hypertonicity;
- quite frequent cases of albinism (lack of melanin);
- acrocyanosis (cyanosis) of the extremities;
Alkaponuria is a genetic disease when the activity of homogenitinase (enzyme) is reduced and the cleavage of amino acids - tyrosine and phenylalaline is disrupted. Symptoms:
- dark color of urine from birth;
- pronounced cutaneous hyperpigmentation;
- general weakness;
- arthritis and ostitis;
- hoarseness of voice.
Metabolic disorders, the symptoms of which can beattributed to diseases caused by external factors and dysfunctions of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland. As a rule, the deficiency or surplus of amino acids, minerals or vitamins causes the following problems:
Lack or excess of potassium in the body
Potassium is responsible for the work of musclesystem, participates in the transmission of nerve signals (impulses), controls the acid-base balance, activates the processes of fermentation. Violation of the normal level of potassium provokes the following symptoms:
- On the part of the nervous system - irritability, decreased concentration of attention and memory, a decrease in all reflexes.
- From the cardiovascular system - hypotension, dizziness, arrhythmia (low level of potassium) or tachycardia (an excess of potassium).
- On the part of the digestive tract - lack of appetite, nausea, until vomiting, upset of the stool, flatulence, bowel movement, stomach cramps.
- From the muscular system - cramps (calves of the legs), decreased physical activity, weakness, down to mild paralysis.
- From the side of the urinary system - impaired urination (frequent urge, profuse or low urination).
- On the part of the acid-base balance - the apparent manifestations of acidosis (increased acidity).
The change in the rate of calcium in the body affectscellular functions, on the formation of bone tissue, including dental, calcium is involved in the processes of blood clotting, in the transport of nerve impulses and in the work of muscles. Hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia is manifested by such symptoms:
- On the part of the nervous system - tics, twitching of the muscles of the mouth, spasms in the throat, neurotic character, irritability, anxiety, drowsiness, apathy. Less often - headaches.
- From the musculoskeletal system - numbness of the fingers, cramps in the calves of the legs, muscle atony, tics, fragility of bone and dental tissue.
- From the side of the cardiovascular system - a violation of the normal heart rate (tachycardia, arrhythmia), symptoms of cardiac blockade, hypotension or hypertension.
- From the side of digestion - nausea to vomiting, constant thirst and dehydration, constipation.
Metabolic disorders, the symptoms of which are related to insufficiency or excess of magnesium
Magnesium is an important microelement, intracellularcation, thanks to which the nervous system works, as well as the muscular apparatus. Also, magnesium participates in the work of all enzymes, helps the functioning of parathyroid glands. The imbalance of magnesium is manifested by such signs:
- From the side of the muscles - cramps, both night and day, muscle atony, decreased reflexes, lethargy, down to pseudo-paralysis, spasm of the respiratory muscles, myalgia.
- On the part of the nervous system - drowsiness, lethargy, apathy, a decline in cognitive functions, in the case of an excess of magnesium - delusional states, hallucinations.
- From the cardiovascular system - arrhythmia or tachycardia, low blood pressure, characterized by sharp jumps up, bradycardia, signs of cardiac blockade, until the stop.
Metabolic disorders, the symptoms of which indicate a sodium imbalance
Sodium is responsible for the regulation of arterialpressure, controls the acid-base balance, participates in the work of the nervous, endocrine, muscular system, transports glucose into the cells of tissues, participates in the work of the kidneys and the transportation of amino acids. The violation of the normal sodium level is manifested by the following symptoms:
- On the part of the respiratory system - cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin), severe shortness of breath, until the respiratory arrest.
- From the gastrointestinal tract - constant nausea, vomiting, spasms, colic in the abdominal area of the abdomen. Strong thirst, dry and rough tongue.
- From the cardiovascular system - hypotension, hypotonic crises, vascular collapse (filiform pulse).
- External manifestations of overabundance of sodium - puffiness, pastoznost skin, overweight.
- From the nervous system - headaches, tics, convulsions. Anxious and excitable state.
- On the part of the skin - sweating, decreased skin turgor, partial hyperemia (redness), dry skin.
- On the part of the urinary system - low urination, small portions, frequent desires.
In addition to microelements, metabolic disorders,the symptoms of which are varied, can denote the lack or excess of vitamins in the body. We list the main vitamins, which, as a rule, play leading roles in the functioning of organs and systems. The imbalance of vitamins can be manifested by the following symptoms:
- Night blindness.
- Dry eyes.
- Dryness of the skin.
- Sealing of the mucous membranes of the eyes, the membranes of the genitourinary sphere, the mucous membrane of the mouth.
- The lag in growth in children under one year.
- Deficiency of niacin - fatigue, diarrhea, dementia (dementia), dermatitis. In medicine, this syndrome is called the syndrome of three D.
- The lack of thiamine (B1) - irritability,swelling of the legs, pallor of the skin, abdominal pain, constipation, convulsions, difficulty breathing, nervous exhaustion. Acute deficiency of B1 can cause heart failure.
- Deficiency of riboflavin (vitamin B2) - cracks in the corners of the mouth, chapped lips, skin itch, inflamed eyes ("sand" in the eyes), anemia may develop.
- Lack of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) - numbness of limbs, muscle atony, convulsions, poor condition of nails and hair (loss), dermatitis.
- Deficiency of vitamin B12 (cyanocobolamine) - anemia in malignant form, weight loss, constipation and diarrhea, muscle atony, swollen and cracked language, dementia, mental illness.
Metabolic disorders, the symptoms of which are associated with vitamin C deficiency
- Scurvy (violation of collagen bonds and as a result - increased bleeding, atony and muscle atrophy, destruction of the structure of bones).
- Weakness and fatigue.
- Irritability, nervousness, depression.
- Edema of the periarticular tissues.
- Increased joints due to the deposition of salts.
- Decreased immune defenses, frequent infectious and inflammatory diseases.
- Loss of appetite, weight loss.
- Poor wound healing.
- Fragility of capillaries, bruises.
Symptoms of metabolic disorders are multiple,often they are manifested only in the late stages of the development of the disease. That is why it is so important to observe the rules of reasonable, rational nutrition and to regularly conduct course vitamin therapy.
Metabolic symptoms may occurthe most diverse, often similar to the signs of more studied diseases. If the wrongly diagnosed disease is not controlled by standard treatment regimens, you should carefully examine the status of all metabolic levels, contact the endocrinologist.
When a metabolic disorder occurs
Metabolic disorders in adults and disordersmetabolism in children involves, first of all, the observance of a certain lifestyle. Adults should pay attention to the long-known medical treatment diet, called - table number 8 for Pevzner. This diet for metabolic disorders was created in the 30s of the last century by an outstanding scientist Pevzner, the founder of gastroenterology and dietology. In total, Pevzner has 15 diets intended for curing various groups of diseases. Nutrition for obesity and excess weight is quite suitable for almost all those who have a metabolic disorder. The principle of the diet is based not on the loss of kilograms, but on the restoration of the functions of organs and systems. The main sign that the nutrition when metabolic disorders began to act is a constant feeling of mild hunger. Caloric content of the diet is very gentle in comparison with other "high-speed" diets - 2000 calories daily, the weight really normalizes slowly, gradually, but for a long time.
Meals for Pevzner - table number 8 includes the following restrictions:
- Bread only from wholemeal flour, not more than 150 grams per day.
- Daily 250 ml of vegetable soup without meat, onlean broth. Twice a week on fixed days, for example Monday - Thursday, soup is allowed on a light meat broth with meatballs or a piece of meat.
- Daily in the menu should be vegetables, better fresh - at least 200 grams. Excludes potatoes, carrots, beets.
- The restriction applies to salt, pickled and spicy food.
- Bread is replaced with pasta, that is, you need to choose two days a week, when instead of bread in the diet included pasta - no more than 150 grams per day.
- Obligatory intake of meat products (exclude sausages). Meat is needed as a source of protein, not less than 150 grams, and you also need to eat 100-150 grams a day.
- Eggs - no more than 1 piece per day - boiled or omelet
- Oil only vegetable, butter, margarine should be excluded.
- Dairy products are chosen with a minimum fat content.
- Bananas and grapes are excluded.
- Tea or coffee is better to drink without sugar.
- Baking, baking, cakes are completely excluded.
- Every day you need to drink at least 1, 5 liters of water (liquid).
Nutrition for metabolic disorders involvesstrict restriction or complete exclusion of fat, animal fats, rice, semolina, fatty meat, sausages, potatoes, beans, sour cream and mayonnaise, alcoholic beverages.
How to treat metabolic disorders?
A metabolic disorder treatment involves an integrated and only under the supervision of a doctor. Means that can regulate metabolism can be divided into the following categories:
- Hormones - preparations based on biologicallyactive substances that promote the normalization of metabolism, the coordination of all metabolic processes. The appointment of hormonal drugs should be done only by a doctor.
- Vitamin complex - low molecular weight, activecompounds that participate in all vital processes - in fermentation, regulation, development of necessary substances, energy storage, development of tissues and bone system. Vitamins should be consumed regularly, correctly choosing their combination and dosage, since not only a deficiency of vitamins can provoke a metabolic disorder, but also their overabundance.
- Enzymes are proteolytes (trypsin) fibrinogenes (streptokinase, fibrinolysin), depolymerizing substances (DNA, RNA), agents that neutralize the viscous consistency of hyaluronic acid (ranidase, lidase).
- Drugs that regulate hemostasis - antithrombotic agents, stimulants of erythropoiesis, drugs that stabilize the level of iron in the blood, hemostatics.
- Amino acids, some of which areindependent drug (glycine, methionine). Amino acids compensate for the shortage of these substances in the body, providing restoration of neural conduction, hypotolamino-pituitary activity, improving the state of energy resources and many other processes.
- Biostimulators - improve the state of nervoussystem, eliminate the phenomenon of hypoxia, activate the protective properties of the body. Biogenic preparations accelerate the process of restoring the regulation of metabolic processes, have reparative properties.
In addition to taking medications prescribed by a doctor, those with a metabolic disorder really turned into a problem, it is worthwhile to think about their diet.