The swelling of the leg has passed and the place of the thrombus is painful.
The formation of a thrombus in the leg is accompanied bycharacteristic symptoms, very painful, frightening surprise appearance. Provoke thrombosis varicose veins, a violation of blood coagulability, prolonged involuntary immobility. Blood clots form in all veins, but most often in the venous system of the lower limbs.
A thrombus is a blood clot, whose bodyis attached to the wall of the vein, and the tail freely flotates with blood flow. Thrombi reach a rather large size. The attachment site can be located in the lower leg, and the tail spreads above the inguinal fold. From the tail part fragments can be separated and set off on their own. Even more dangerous is the separation of the thrombus head. In this case, there is a threat of blockage of the central blood lines that carry blood to the head, heart, lung.
Blood clot, entrenched in the venousThe wall increases in size gradually. As the lumen of the vessel overlaps and blood flow is disturbed, symptoms of thrombosis appear. The first signs of venous thrombosis are:
- sharp swelling of the foot;
- severe pain, more intense during movement;
- cyanotic coloring of the skin;
- body temperature rise.
Under the pressure of blood clot or part of it breaks awayfrom the place of attachment to the vascular wall. In this case, it is most often destroyed into separate fragments. The fate of these fragments is different. Some of them are further degraded, broken down into even smaller pieces and destroyed. The other part with blood flow moves to vital organs, presenting a serious danger to their normal functioning. Blockage of the major blood lines deprives the brain of food, causing strokes, heart, provoking heart attacks. The lack of nutrition (ischemia) of the organ causes lesions, the true nature of which is not always possible to establish.
In thrombosis of superficial veins, the picturethe disease is cleared up by a visual examination. Pronounced cyanosis of the skin, strengthened venous pattern, characteristic swelling indicate the possibility of thrombosis and tearing of the blood clot.
- On the tibia there is swelling, the skin in this place reddens:
- the temperature in the place of edema increases;
- muscles of the lower leg during walking hurt;
- with a passive flexion of the foot, the pain in the calf muscles increases.
The danger is represented by torn clots andthrombi with flotation, when the head is attached to the wall, and the tail with blood flow stretches along the blood vessel. When thrombus penetrates into the deep femoral vein, surgical treatment is resorted to: a superficial vein is bandaged around the inguinal fold. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. There are other ways to deal with torn off blood clots. If the thrombus in the leg breaks off in the inferior vena cava, the vein above the tearing site is stitched: several channels are formed from the vessel wall, through which the blood flows freely, and the thrombus can not pass.
Good results show the procedurethrombectomy with a special device - thrombus extractor. After removing the blood clot into the vein, a filter is installed to prevent the blood clot from entering the common bloodstream. To catch possible detached fragments above the breakaway site, cava filters are installed - special devices that allow blood to pass through, but retain the thrombus. The cava filter is inserted into the vein when folded and then opened. Cava filters are represented by two models:
- "Umbrella" - a filter consisting of rays, opening in the form of an umbrella in the lumen of the inferior vena cava. The filter is placed under local anesthesia.
- "Hourglass" - repeats the shape of the trap hourglass shape and serves a dual barrier to the detached thrombi, set her mouth distal hepatic vein under local anesthesia.
"Umbrella" is introduced for up to 45 days, after whichthe trap is removed. The filter "Hourglass" is set for a constant time. The use of the technique of placing removable or permanent filters increased the efficacy of preventing pulmonary thromboembolism to 98%.
Blocking of the deep veins of the lower leg
Danger of blockage of deep veins of the hip and lower legconsists in the possibility of migration of a blood clot into the pulmonary artery. To guard the patient must bursting pains in the lower leg, heaviness in the legs, swelling of the affected limb. The patient's temperature rises sharply, veins appear on the skin of the sore leg, the skin becomes glossy.
The affected leg is elatedposition and call the doctor. All the warming up procedures are contraindicated, the patient should perform bed rest for 5 days, take anticoagulants. Instead of surgery, conservative treatment can be prescribed. When installing cava filters, fibrinolytics provide a good effect for the resolution of thrombi and its fragments.
Thigh-deep vein thrombosis
Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis complicates the similarity of its symptoms with signs of phlegmon adipose tissue, rupture of Baker's cyst and a number of other diseases. Thigh-deep vein thrombosis manifests itself:
- pain from the inside of the thigh;
- weight in the affected leg;
- increase in temperature above 39 ° C.
Severity of symptoms and consequences depend onlocalization of thrombus and its size. In many cases, the blood flow is restored independently through a system of communicating veins. The blood flow is directed to the subcutaneous veins, and the thrombosis remains unrecognized, proceeds asymptomatically. The thrombus eventually breaks down. Some fragments are lysed, another part enters the bloodstream, floating freely around the circulatory system and causing complications.
Complications of deep vein thrombosis
Fragments of a thrombus of different sizes, wandering aroundcirculatory system, pose a danger to any organ. The greatest danger is blockage of the pulmonary artery and the development of pulmonary thromboembolism.
Health hazards also representdamage to the veins in thrombosis. The process of thrombus formation is accompanied by deformation of the vascular wall and venous valves, which causes worsening of blood circulation and stagnant phenomena in the capillaries. Externally, the transferred thrombosis is indicated by:
- easily appearing bruises on the skin above the place of thrombosis;
- pigmentation of the skin;
- peeling, dry skin;
- the appearance of ulcers, itchy skin.
The ruptured thrombus can causedisability or even death. Avoid dangerous consequences is possible with a serious attitude towards treatment. Medication and endoscopic methods of fighting with a thrombus give a positive result of treatment at all stages of its formation, detachment and destruction.