Lung edema urgent help algorithm of action 2015
Anaphylactic shock - acute allergica reaction dangerous to human life. About 10-20% of cases of anaphylaxis have a lethal outcome. The condition develops with increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the body to the allergen.
Reactions to the allergen have no exact timemanifestations, most often within 5-30 minutes. In some cases, painful symptoms appear after 6-12 hours from the moment the allergen hits the skin or mucous membranes.
The pathological condition can cause blood circulation disorders, muscle spasms, pressure drop, oxygen deficiency and loss of consciousness.
Emergency care for anaphylactic shock
When the first signs of anaphylactic shock occur, an ambulance should be called immediately. The patient is placed in a horizontal position.
You do not need to raise your head on the pillow, it canfurther complicate the blood supply to the brain. It is recommended to remove the dentures in advance. If possible, you need to measure the pulse and pressure, and set the frequency of breathing.
Before the arrival of specialists it is required to take measuresto eliminate the effect of the allergen, for example, to ventilate the room, stop the drug (when the acute reaction caused the medication). It is possible to apply a tourniquet above the injection or bite site.
Emergency medical care
Acute allergic reaction requires immediate medical attention:
- Avoid contact of the patient with the allergen;
- relax the smooth muscles of the body;
- restore breathing and circulation.
Emergency care for anaphylactic shock involves the phased introduction of a number of drugs. The algorithm for anaphylactic shock is :
- Ensure airway patency;
- Subcutaneous or intravenous administration of epinephrine to eliminate acute respiratory failure, 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride is diluted to 10 ml with saline solution;
- Place the injection or bite with 0.1% adrenaline solution at 0.3-0.5 ml;
- Introduction of glucocorticoids for relief of anaphylactic shock. Prednisolone in a dosage of 90-120 mg. or dexamethasone in a dosage of 12-16 mg .;
- Administration of antihistamines with a view toreduce blood pressure, relieve spasms from the bronchi and reduce the level of swelling of the lungs. First by injection, then in tablets (tavegil, suprastin, diphenhydramine).
- In severe cases, patients may requireartificial ventilation and closed heart massage. When providing emergency care, doctors can resort to catheterization of the central vein, tracheostomy or adrenaline injection in the heart.
After overcoming acute manifestations of pathologythe doctor prescribes treatment in the intensive care unit or intensive care unit. If the pressure can be kept within normal limits, the injection of epinephrine is stopped.
Hormones and histamine blockers provide elimination of the effects of allergies within 1-3 days. For 2 weeks, the patient is treated with desensitizing therapy.
A typical symptom of anaphylaxis is the onsetacute reaction after repeated interaction with the irritant. This means that after the first contact with the allergen, anaphylactic shock in children and adults is usually not manifested.
Anaphylactic shock develops as a result ofthe development of specific substances that provoke inflammatory processes. The release of these elements leads to the release of basophils, histamine from the cells of the immune system.
To trigger a sharp activation of allergic receptors are capable of such factors as:
- taking a number of medications (penicillin antibiotics, antimicrobials, hormonal or anesthetic drugs);
- the use of antidiphtheria, antitetanus serum;
- excessive production of hormones of the pancreas (insulin), parathyroid glands (parathyroid hormone);
- getting on the skin of poison, saliva of animals, including insects and snakes;
- vaccination (use of medicinal substances onthe basis of cells of the immune system and drugs for fighting diseases of the nervous system of a bacterial nature, bronchial asthma and viral pathologies that are transmitted by airborne droplets);
- the use of certain foods or spices (legumes, fish, eggs, nuts, seafood or fruits);
- radiography, when iodine-containing contrast agents become dangerous;
- erroneous use of blood substitutes, transfusion of unsuitable blood.
- itching on the skin and mucous membranes;
- discharge from the nose;
- nausea, vomiting;
- cyanosis and coldness of the skin;
- laryngeal edema;
- redness of the skin in the bite zone, the effects of the local drug;
- stomach ache;
- lowering blood pressure;
- violation of urination and defecation;
- spasm of the bronchi, difficulty and hoarse breathing;
- loss of consciousness.
The reaction to the allergen usually takes place in 3 forms:
- Classical anaphylactic shock. The condition entails a rapid onset of weakness, loss of consciousness. With this form of shock, the patient does not have time to recognize the main signs of pathology due to the rapid onset of a disorder of consciousness;
- Subacute version of the flow of shock. Usually occurs after taking medications. The first manifestations can be noted in 1-3 minutes after the injection or 10-20 minutes after ingestion. Dizziness, difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness;
- Anaphylactoid reaction. It causes a rash, increased sweating, a decrease in pressure, pain syndrome and impaired consciousness 30-60 minutes after interaction with the allergen.
The onset of anaphylaxis can be established without error after a series of studies:
- analysis of the anamnesis of life (establishment of a propensity to drug intolerance, food allergy in the patient, his parents and other relatives) and patient complaints (symptomatic check);
- medical examination;
- blood test;
- skin allergological testing;
- ECG, measurement of blood pressure.
To reduce the risk of an acute allergic reaction, you must follow the following rules:
- Avoid contact with irritants;
- take medicines as recommended by your doctor;
- daily take a shower;
- conduct a regular wet cleaning of the living quarters.